An analog modem is a device that enables a computer to transmit data
over telephone lines (e.g. 28.8Kbps [kilo bits per second] and 56Kbps).
Computer information is stored digitally, whereas information transmitted
over telephone lines is transmitted in the form of analog waves. Analog
modems translate data from digital to analog and back. The fastest
analog modems run at 57,600 bps.
Short for 'binary digit,' the smallest, most basic unit of computer
data. It's like an atom of information, having two possible states--positive
and negative, often defined as 'on and off', or 'one and zero.'
Bps (bits or bytes per second)
The speed at which data is transferred over a network line, defined
in bits or bytes.
The software that serves as your interface with the Internet. Netscape
Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer are the two most common.
Technically equal to 8 bits, one Byte of data is the standard unit
of measure on the Internet. As data is transferred to the cable modem
via broadband technology, some of the data is lost in what is known
as "Overhead". Due to the loss in overhead, every 10 bits
of data transferred equates to 1 Byte. So, if your display read "43
bits per second", you would be receiving 4.3 bytes of data per
(Pronounced cash.) It's the location in your computer's memory, or
in an independent storage device, reserved for easy, high-speed retrieval
of information, known as cache hits. Cache effectiveness is defined
by hit rate. Many systems use 'smart caches,' which recognize and
readily supply frequently used data, such as a recently visited web
Real-time communication between multiple users over the Internet,
like a party line or conference call using text instead of conversation.
The text appears as it is typed on all PCs participating in the chat.
Internet chat occurs in 'chat rooms,' which are usually set up by
specific sites for users with a common interest.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
A protocol for assigning IP addresses to devices on a network from
a pool of available IP's. A dynamic IP address changes each time the
device connects to the network (or every 4 hours).
The alphabetic address for a web site, usually beginning with the
prefix 'www' (for 'world wide web'). The domain name usually contains
an identifying name, such as that of a company; a suffix which defines
the type of organization; and titles defining the descending layers
of a site, narrowing down to a specific page.
The suffix describes the type of organization, standardized as follows:
net: network changeover path
XX: two letter country codes (e.g. United Kingdom = uk)
DNS (Domain Name Service)
A sort of Internet phone book. While we humans recognize a web site
by domain name, a network recognizes it by IP address. For example,
a DNS might translate the IP address 123.456.789.0 into the domain
Download (a.k.a. downstream)
The process of transferring files from another computer to your computer
over a network or modem line.
A program that controls peripheral hardware devices, such as a printer
E-mail (electronic mail)
E-mail is the primary means of communication over the Internet, as
well as the most frequently used application by Internet users. Users
can send each other messages, attaching complete documents, photos,
or audio and video clips.
This is where electronic mail is received. It is a combination of
a user name and a host name, such as email@example.com
Ethernet card (a.k.a. NIC, or Network Interface Card)
An expansion board that connects a PC, or PCs, to a network.
The first page of a web site, usually serving as an introduction and
table of contents. The address is usually as simple as the site gets,
containing only the site name and suffix.
(Hypertext Markup Language)
The programming language used to create web sites.
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
The protocol that tells the host server what information (web pages,
FTP sites, etc.) to send the client.
A regional point of connection between the Internet and its users,
such as an Internet Service Provider.
An icon, graphic, or word on a web page that automatically opens another
page for viewing.
IP (Internet Protocol)
The protocol that specifies the format of information 'packets' transported
over the Internet, including how the packets are addressed for delivery.
The numerical address of a computer or a web page. Internet protocols
recognize a specific machine by this address. If, for example, a user
obtains their IP address, they can then access their e-mail from any
ISP (Internet Service Provider)
ISPs, such as CNS, provide access to the Internet, be it to individuals
or to large companies. Most provide a software package, user name,
password and access number for a monthly fee. Equipped with a modem,
users can then log on the web and send and receive e-mail. ISPs are
connected to one another through Network Access Points (NAPs).
LAN (Local Area Network)
A group of computers connected by a local, usually physical, network,
such as that in a single office, building, company or community.
MAC (Media Access Control)
Controls the way multiple devices share a common media channel.
A host server, which holds e-mail messages for clients.
Phisher/Phishing emails are e-mails and forged websites intended to
trick recipients into releasing financial or personal information,
such as usernames, passwords, social security numbers or credit card
numbers. They do so by stealing images from legitimate websites and
creating a forged look-a-like of familiar brands and/or online stores.
An application, which can be installed into a larger one, such as
your browser, to carry out, specialized tasks such as playing audio
or video. Plug-ins are designed to integrate automatically with existing
POP3 (Post Office Protocol)
The protocol for incoming e-mail.
A very close relative of Spyware is software that records the behavior
of an online user, often without their knowledge or consent. It also
"calls home" but it may send back specifics regarding your
browsing activity and/or to get more pop up ads.
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
The protocol for outgoing mail.